From an Officer in the Ottoman Army to a Muslim Publicist and Armament Agent in Berlin

Bibliotheca Orientalis, 2006
During the colonial era, the Arab world witnessed a strong nationalist movement that called for the unification of the Arabs under common heritage — that all Arabs are united by a shared history, culture, and language and the elimination or minimization of direct Western influence.
 This movement, as integrated to Muslim religious ideas, was lead by many a great Muslim figure throughout the Muslim world, such as the Syro-Egyptian Muslim scholar Sheikh Muhammad RashîdRidâ (1865-1935), the founder of the well-known journal
 Al- Manâr 
(‘The Lighthouse’, 1898-1940), the Lebanese Druzeprince Shakîb Arslân (1871-1946), who was later banished to Switzerland, and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Amîn al-Husaynî (1897-1974), who was later exiled in Berlin (1941-1945) and became an ally of the Axis. Rashîd Ridâ, for example, believed that the renaissance of Islam could be accomplished through Arab nationalism, for it was the only nationalism that seemed to be in harmony with Islam.
 He also succeeded in establishing a great network and extended the influence of his religious ideas over the Muslim World from North Africa to Russia and the Far East.


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